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Saturday, December 3, 2016

A Spectacular Piece Sacrifice in a World Correspondence Championship Game!!


    Fake stories and headlines designed to titillate are proliferating on the internet, social network sites, newspapers and TV and they can do serious damage to whatever or whomever was the target. 
     The recent American Presidential race was a prime example of the political aspect of fake stories. Hillary Clinton, rightly or wrongly, was accused of series of crimes, there were claims she had health issues, and that she was in cahoots with shadowy global financiers. And, of course, the overwhelming majority of the media’s campaign coverage consisted of negative reporting, also rightly or wrongly, on Donald Trump. I saw a lot of memes on Facebook along with news stories concerning both candidates there and elsewhere that I simply could not verify by any research...makes me think a lot of it was made up. Shoddy analysis and reports that are often colored by bias, innuendo and prejudice seems to be the norm, but that's nothing new. See my posts on Political Mud Wrestling and the story about the time Upton Sinclair ran for governor of California. 
     That post came to mind when I read the new world CC champ, Leonardo Ljubicic (FIDE rated 2087 and ICCF rated 2602), managed to pull off a "speculative piece sacrifice" at move 32 (with help from Stockfish, of course) for a critical victory over German SIM Hans-Hermann Clever. I figured it had to be a "Man Bites Dog" headline and was eager to see how Ljubicic pulled it off.  It turned out that playing through the game was a disappointment because like a lot of news stories we see these days,  the claim was a boat load of crap. The truth is Stockfish 8 saw the sacrifice immediately in a position where it was already giving white a huge advantage.
     Everybody knows that it's impossible to achieve any significant result in today’s CC without engines and databases and good results require powerful computers, diligent opening research and lots and lots of patience. The result is a lot of very high quality, sterile games. In the last world correspondence championship 87 percent of the games in the finals were drawn, with two players drawing all 16 of their games. The point is that when I see claims that 32.Bh7+ was a spectacular sacrifice when Stockfish saw it instantly and white was already winning, it's hardly an accurate description. Far more credit should be given to Ljubicic for finding 28.g6 because, at least on my laptop, it wasn't even in the engine's top five moves.
 

Friday, December 2, 2016

A Stunning Queen Sacrifice by Sergei Prokofiev

     Sergei Prokofiev (April 23, 1891 – March 5, 1953) was a Soviet composer, pianist and conductor. As the creator of masterpieces across numerous musical genres, he is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century. 
     After the Russian Revolution, Prokofiev left Russia with the official blessing of the Soviets and resided in the United States, then Germany, then Paris, making his living as a composer, pianist and conductor. 
     When he first arrived in the United States, in San Francisco, he was questioned by immigration officials then released; that was on August 1918. Because of delays in production of his operas he soon found himself in financial difficulties and in April 1920, not wanting to return to Russia a failure, he left for Paris.
     In Paris he had moderate success, but in March of 1922 he moved with his mother to the Bavarian Alps where for over a year he concentrated on an opera project. By this time his music had acquired a following in Russia and he received invitations to return there, but he decided to stay in Europe. In 1923, Prokofiev married the Spanish singer Carolina Codina (1897–1989) before moving back to Paris. They had two sons. 
     In 1927, Prokofiev made his first concert tour in the Soviet Union. Over the course of more than two months he spent time in Moscow and Leningrad (Saint Petersburg had been renamed), where he enjoyed success. In the meantime, Prokofiev came under the influence of the teachings of Christian Science. He began to practice its teachings and believed it to be beneficial to his health and so remained faithful practitioner for the rest of his life. His belief in Christian Science also caused him to turn against the style and the subject matter of some of his earlier work.
     The start of 1930 saw him touring the United States, but by the early 1930s, both Europe and America were suffering from the Great Depression which inhibited his opera and ballet productions. Having been homesick for some time, Prokofiev began to build bridges with the Soviet Union acting as a musical ambassador between his homeland and western Europe. In 1936 Prokofiev and his family settled permanently in Moscow after shifting back and forth between there and Paris. 
     After World War Two, in early 1948 following a meeting of Soviet composers, the Politburo denounced Prokofiev for the crimes of "formalism", described as a "renunciation of the basic principles of classical music" in favor of "muddled, nerve-racking" sounds that "turned music into cacophony." As a result, by August 1948, Prokofiev was in severe financial straits and deeply in debt. Also, earlier in February 1948 Prokofiev's second wife, Lina, was arrested for espionage when she tried to send money to her mother in Spain. After nine months of interrogation she was sentenced to 20 years of hard labor. She was eventually released after Stalin's death in 1953 and in 1974 left the Soviet Union.
     Prokofiev died at the age of 61 on March 5, 1953, the same day as Joseph Stalin. He had lived near Red Square and for three days the throngs gathered to mourn Stalin made it impossible to carry Prokofiev's body out for the funeral service at the headquarters of the Soviet Composers' Union. Usually Prokofiev's death is attributed to cerebral hemorrhage, but he had been chronically ill for the prior eight years. Lina Prokofiev outlived her estranged husband by many years, dying in London in early 1989.     
     Prokofiev was also enthusiastic about chess, frequently visiting the chess club in St. Petersburg, but during his last years his doctors forbade him to play. He was friends with both Capablanca and Botvinnik and he once met Lasker who gave him an open invitation to visit with him in Berlin. He was also on good terms with Alekhine. It was after he returned to Russia that Prokofiev and David Oistrakh became friends and played many chess games together. That lead to their match in 1937. Oistrakh, a First Category player (around 2100 Elo), was one of the greatest violinists of the 20th century. 
     Ten games were to be played at the Master of Art Club in Moscow, with Vladimir Alatortsev and Ilya Kan as the referees. The games were to be played two evenings a week with a time control of thirty-six moves in two hours and ten moves every hour after that. Only seven games were played.  
     The winner was to receive a trophy, but there was also a "behind the scenes wager." Both musicians were engaged for a concert tour, though only one was actually needed and the bet was the loser of the match would be the one that had to go on the tour. Oddly, only the score of one game (a draw) of the match, which was won by Oistrakh, is known.
 

Thursday, December 1, 2016

Necrology



Mark Taimanov (1926) died at the age of 90 in his hometown St. Petersburg on the 28th and 20-year-old Russian GM Urii Eliseev died after falling from the 12th floor balcony at his apartment. The incident reportedly took place on 26 November, Saturday, at 23.30 when Eliseev was relaxing with his friends and decided to jump from the apartment balcony to the balcony in the next apartment...his attempt failed.

How To Evaluate Threats

     C.J.S. Purdy founded and edited the magazine Australasian Chess Review from 1929 to 1944 when it became Check which morphed into Chessworld from 1946–1967. Anything Purdy wrote is valuable to amateur players...Bobby Fischer called him a great chess instructor and that is a pretty good compliment! 
     In one of his magazine articles on threats, Purdy wrote that assuming it's your move then a threat is a move your opponent could make if it were his turn to move that would be damaging to your game
      He pointed out a threat is a MOVE and to think of threats in words such as, "He threatens to win my Queen." or "He is threatening a mating attack." is not only vague, but is plain wrong!  In order to determine if the threat is real or imaginary, you must calculate what would happen if your opponent actually made the move. 
     A good example of what Purdy was talking about can be seen in the famous game Yates vs. Reti, New York, 1924. You can play over the whole game HERE, but I want to look at the position from Reti's perspective after 11.Re1 and apply Purdy's advice. So, in the below position, it's actually black's move, but taking Purdy's advice, we will pretend it's white's move and see if Bxe6 is a real threat.
 

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

King's Gambit Wagenbach Variation

     The Waganbach opens with 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 h5. It's rare and probably with good reason. The idea behind is to support the P on f4 with g5 and prevent white from playing h4 making it difficult for white to break up black's K-side. 
     I can't say much about its founder. He is the Hungarian emigre Janos Wagenbach who lives in England and is rated a little over 1900 Elo. He claims to have come up with 3...h5 in a blitz game. British correspondence Senior IM Jonathan Tait has also experimented with it.
     I thought it might be fun to take a look at it with Stockfish 8 and Komodo 10. According to Stockfish the evaluation after 3...h5 is only the "normal" half a Pawn for white while Komodo 10 is a bit more conservative, putting white's evaluation at only a small fraction of a P. 
     Clearly there is no outright refutation that results in mate or loss of material, but 3... h5 can't be good because it does nothing to further black's development or control of the center. As one person so aptly put it, when black wins it's either because white misplayed the opening or he got outplayed in the middlegame or ending. Of course with us amateurs that's the case even if we play the latest theory in the Najdorf. The real problem when you play weird or offbeat variations or gambits is that your opponent can usually not go far wrong by playing natural developing moves while you can easily find yourself in a situation where you are forced to find the only move (often an unnatural looking one at that) that avoids disaster. 
     My database has two games with it. The strongest players were Neil McDonald who faced it against a 2000-rated player named John Dive in an open tournament in London back in 1994. McDonald won in 19 moves. There's also a game, won by white, from a tournament in The Netherlands in 2002. White won that one in 35 moves. But, it looks like it might be a fun line in Blitz games and for us amateurs, even in a serious game provided one is familiar with some playable lines. If you meet a GM, I'd avoid it though.
 

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

The Rothschilds and Chess

Albert
     Jacqueline Piatigorsky (November 6, 1911 – July 15, 2012), the French-born American chess and tennis player, author, sculptor, philanthropist, and arts patron, was a member of the Rothschild banking family of France. 
     The Rothschild family is a wealthy family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild, a court Jew to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel, in Frankfurt, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court Jews, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international banking family through his five sons, who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples. 
     During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world. The family's wealth was divided among various descendants and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, farming, wine and charities. The Rothschild family has been the subject of conspiracy theories that claim world governments and economies are secretly controlled by the family. 
     It is not generally known but the Rothschilds were very able chess players. Anselm Meyer Rothschild, the founder of the house, was the strongest player in Frankfort-on-the-Main during his time and it was through his proficiency that he became acquainted with the Prince of Hesse, who during his term of Napoleon entrusted Rothschild with his money.
     Anselm's grandson, Albert Salomon Anselm Freiherr von Rothschild (October 29, 1844 – February 11, 1911) was a banker in Austria-Hungary and a member of the Rothschild banking family of Austria. Businesses that he owned included Creditanstalt and the Northern Railway. 
     Born in Vienna and educated in Vienna and Brno, he was known in the family as "Salbert." On his father's death in 1874, brothers Nathaniel and Ferdinand inherited most of their parents real estate and art collection, but the family business went to Albert, including the S M von Rothschild bank and the shares in the Northern Railway. 
     Albert was a chess patron who helped to finance the Vienna tournaments of 1873, 1882, 1898, 1903 (Gambit) and 1908. He was also President of the Vienna Chess Association 1872-1883 and a strong amateur player.
 

Monday, November 28, 2016

A Rossolimo Brilliancy, Schmid vs. Rossolimo Heidelberg 1949

     Rossolimo once complained bitterly that when he tried to publish a book of his games, publishers weren't interested because he "didn't score enough points," meaning he did not have any major tournament success and was never quite among the world's top players. It's a shame a book of his best games was never published. Rossolimo did write one book, Les Echecs au coin du feu, a collection of his studies and endgames with a preface by Savielly Tartakower, published in Paris in 1947. Good luck trying to find this book! It is in the John G. White collection in the Cleveland, Ohio Public Library and the Royal Library of the Netherlands. 
     Wikipedia says that in 1970 he self-published Rossolimo's Brilliancy Prizes, but that does not appear to be the case. According to Sam Sloan what Rossolimo actually did was make photocopies of magazine articles from various chess magazines which contained the games and commentaries for the 12 brilliancy prizes that he had won. Sloan claimed that he looked through him as well as the letter Rossolimo had written to the USCF asking them to publish the games in a book. Sloan said that he realized that just recopying old magazine articles by other authors would not make an acceptable book and that Rossolimo would also have had to write something. Sloan added that the games were good and Rossolimo had great stories to tell, but then he died and after that, when Mrs. Rossolimo died in 1995 all her papers disappeared.
     According to Rossolimo's son, his mother showed him her autobiography (which included much information about his father) in 1975, shortly after his father's death. She had typed it in Russian and wanted to have it published. Shortly afterwards, it was borrowed by a visitor to the Rossolimo Chess Studio by someone who promised to have it translated into English and published, but he disappeared and the manuscript was never returned.      
     At the time of his death Rossolimo was one of the country's 12 GMs and for more than 20 years had been running his chess studio in Greenwich Village. He died on July 25, 1975 after he fell down a flight of stairs outside of a chess student's apartment on 10th Street not far from his studio. He laid unconscious for several ours at the bottom of the stairs and after being found was taken to St. Vincient's Hospital where he remained in a coma for several days. After the autopsy police ruled the fall accidental, but there has been speculation that he may have been pushed by muggers. 
     He lived in Moscow during the mid-1920s, and moved to Paris with his Russian mother in 1929. In 1938 he finished second behind Capablanca in Paris and won the French Championship in 1948. He was Paris Champion a record seven times, and drew two matches in 1948 and 1949 with Savielly Tartakower. In 1955 he won the U.S. Open Championship on tiebreaks ahead of Samuel Reshevsky.
     Rossolimo played for France in the Chess Olympiads of 1950 and 1972, and for the United States in 1958, 1960, and 1966. In 1952, he moved to the U.S. with his wife Vera and son Alexander to rejoin his mother and Greek father in New York. When I met Rossolimo at his chess studio in New York City his wife was there; she was a very elegant lady that reminded me of royalty. His son, Alexander N. Rossolimo, is an American think tank executive, entrepreneur, and corporate director.
Alex Rossolimo
     According to the book Losing Moses on the Freeway: The 10 Commandments in America by Chris Hedges, Rossolimo and his family were confined by the communists in a basement before fleeing to France in 1919. When he arrived in the U.S. in 1953 and opened his chess studio he worked as a taxi driver and often slept amid the tables in the studio. It was hard for him to make enough money to even pay the rent on his studio, especially given his love for drink and frequent traveling. 
     Then along came a German named George Frohlinde who had arrived in New York in 1958, claiming he had spent the war years playing chess at his local club in Wismar on the Baltic Sea and had been unable to find work as a carpenter in Germany after the war. He started working in Rossolimo's chess studio checking out boards and sets and managing the inventory.
     Rossolimo was often away and in 1963, nostalgic for France, moved to Paris and put Frohlinde in charge for a year. According to Frohlinde he got 75 percent of the income with Rossolimo getting the remainder.  They didn't make much money; according to Frohlinde income the first week was only $50 (about $400 today). That's when Frohlinde decided to start selling chess sets and they started making more money, but then Frohlinde said, "Rossolimo came back from Paris and threw me out." 

     Frohlinde and his wife then opened a rival shop nearby and took many of the clients and most of the inventory which, he claimed, left Rossolimo destitute, no longer playing chess and trying to manage on his own.   They never spoke to each other again. After Rossolimo's death his widow ran the studio briefly, but it closed down in just a few months. Frohlinde stated that he did not learn of Rossolimo's death for a while and didn't have any particular feelings about it, commenting, "He was old and drinking heavily." 
     Rossolimo had wins over the likes of Bogoljubov, Bronstein and Euwe, against whom he had a lifetime plus score. He also scored draws against Capablanca, Fischer and Smyslov. According to the site Chessmetrics, his best world rank was 23rd in 1950 and his highest ever rating was rating 2663 in 1951.

Heidelberg 1949 
1) Unzicker 7.0 
2) Rossolimo 6.0 
3-5) O'Kelly, Kieninger and Paul Schmidt 5.0 
6-8) Niephaus, Wade and Lothar Schmid 4.0 
9-10) B.H. Wood and Witkowski  2.5
 

Saturday, November 26, 2016

Chess24


Chess 24 site in English, Spanish and German has been around since January 1, 2014 and  guys like Viswanathan Anand, Peter Svidler, Rustam Kasimdzhanov, Artur Jussupow, Jan Gustafsson and Francisco Vallejo were associated with it. The site provides live coverage of major international tournaments, free online games, videos and analysis. It also includes a tactics trainer and chess news with reports on tournaments, interviews and more. OK, so I'm a little behind the times, but I just discovered it...if you haven't been there, check it out!

Friday, November 25, 2016

Eugene M. Antoniadi

     Eugene Michel Antoniadi (March 1, 1870 in Constantinople – February 10, 1944 in Paris) was a Greek astronomer who spent most of his life in France when invited there by Camille Flammarion. 
     Flammarion (February 26, 1842 – June 3, 1925) was a French astronomer and a prolific author of more than fifty titles, including popular science works about astronomy, several notable early science fiction novels and works on psychical research and related topics. He also published the magazine L'Astronomie, starting in 1882 and maintained a private observatory at Juvisy-sur-Orge, France. 
     Antoniadi became a highly reputed observer of Mars and at first supported the notion of Martian canals, but after using the telescope at Meudon Observatory during the 1909 opposition of Mars, he came to the conclusion that canals were an optical illusion. He also observed Venus and Mercury and made the first attempts to draw a map of Mercury, but his maps were flawed by his incorrect assumption that Mercury had synchronous rotation with the Sun. The first standard nomenclature for Martian albedo features (an albedo feature is a large area on the surface of a planet which shows a contrast in brightness or darkness of adjacent areas) was introduced by the International Astronomical Union when they adopted 128 names from the 1929 map of Antoniadi. 

     Craters on Mars and on the Moon were named in his honor, as well as Antoniadi Dorsum on Mercury. He is also famed for creating the Antoniadi scale of seeing (a five-point system when observing celestial bodies, with 1 being the best seeing conditions and 5 being the worst) that is used by amateur astronomers. 
     He was also a strong chess player.  Antoniadi was taught chess by his brothers while very young and began studying theory from Staunton's Handbook in 1888 and later on he subjected the games of Morphy to close study. While still living in Constantinople he took part in four private tournaments where the city's strongest players participated, winning all four. 
     In 1893 he went to France and although he lost most of his games against Janowsky, he did manage several wins. Ten years later he began to study the games played at the Hastings tournaments after having been motivated by the writings of Tarrasch, whose games he also studied. 
     When studying the games, he tried to following them without moving the pieces and it paid off because his judgment increased to the point that he was able to beat all the amateurs in Paris. He had also hoped to play Janowsky again as well as Taubenhaus but was unable to meet them. 
     In 1905 he tied for first with a French player named Clerissy and a strong English amateur named J.M. Lee in the Cafe de la Regence Championship with a score of 12-2.   His best performance was in Paris 1907 where he tied for first with Marshall whom he beat and ahead of Tartakower, whom he also beat. His only loss was to de Villeneuve. In that game he had a winning position in which he had two passed Ps and was up the exchange. It was claimed he lost unexpectedly due to the fact he was sick. Marshall won the playoff. 
     Antoniadi attributed his success entirely to his studies of Tarrasch's works and he considered Morphy to have been the greatest player of all time and felt Morphy would easily defeat any of the modern players.  His opinion of the the "Modern" school headed up by Steinitz was that it was a synonym for "lack of genius." 

Paris 1907
1) Eugene Antoniadi and Frank Marshall 6.0 
3) Savielly Tartakower 5.0 
4) Jean de Villeneuve 4.0 
5-6) Gustave Lazard and C. W. Pape 2.0 
7-8) Hagen and H. Weinstein 1.5 

Frank Marshall      1 ½ ½ 2.0 
Eugene Antoniadi 0 ½ ½ 1.0 
 

Wednesday, November 23, 2016

Stockfish 8 is out

     The most recent version is now available for download. Oddly, on the CCLR rating list for all versions Komodo 10.1 is tied for first with Stockfish 8 at 3381. Komodo 10.2 is listed at 3374. Of course 8 points is pretty meaningless. I was unable to locate anything describing exactly what the improvements are, but in individual match ups, Stockfish 8 has beaten Komodo 10.2 by a score of +7 -2 =24! Komodo 10.2 costs $60 and is reported to be about 22 Elo stronger than Komodo 10.1.

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Cyrus Chess

     One of my first computers in the early 1980s was a Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer 2, generally known as the CoCo2; it plugged into a TV and the programs ran off cassette tapes. You could buy a magazine dedicated to the computer and spend evenings and Saturday mornings programming it in BASIC to do all kinds of neat things. 
     Naturally, when the chess program Cyrus came out, I had to have a copy. Cyrus was written by a fellow named Richard Lang and it was his first chess program. Lang started programming in January 1981 and made his tournament debut at the 2nd European Microcomputer Chess Championship at the PCW Show in 1981 in London. Cyrus was the clear winner with 5 out of 5 in a field of 12 microcomputers. 
CoCo 2
     Lang was immediately offered two contracts by David Levy and Kevin O’Connell, one for Cyrus, and one to work as programmer for Intelligent Software. Lang accepted and Cyrus IS-Chess for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum was his first commercial entry, followed by programs for various dedicated chess computers merchandised by Intelligent Software, as well a further improved version of Cyrus, Cyrus II. In an 2003 interview, Richard Lang stated that there is still much of Cyrus in current versions of Chess Genius.   
     Back in the day, Cyrus was one of the world's first chess games designed for strong players, but it was probably one of the least known due to its limited distribution. 
     Cyrus had varying level of difficulty based on how long it was allowed to think and the time it took over a move on each level could differ significantly from the average. Times were 1, 10, 20, and 30 seconds, 1, 2, 6 and 12 minutes and infinite. 
     When Cyrus came out for the CoCo 2 it was claimed that it had been greatly improved since it had won the second EMCC. The manual claimed that it offered advanced players a challenging game under tournament conditions and in the fast mode it was an ideal opponent for beginners. Some of the features were: it could play against itself, it could show you its thinking, it allowed for setting up positions for problem solving or analysis and you could print out games. 
     In the following game Cyrus succeeded in defeating Cray Blitz, a program written by Robert Hyatt, Harry L. Nelson, and Albert Gower to run on the Cray supercomputer. It was derived from "Blitz" a program that Hyatt started to work on as an undergraduate. "Blitz" played its first move in the fall of 1968, and was developed continuously from that time until roughly 1980 when Cray Research chose to sponsor the program. Cray Blitz participated in computer chess events from 1980 through 1994 when the last North American Computer Chess Championship was held in Cape May, New Jersey. Cray Blitz won several ACM computer chess events, and two consecutive World Computer Chess Championships, the first in 1983 in New York City, and the second in 1986 in Cologne, Germany. The program Crafty is the successor to Cray Blitz. 
     Analyzing this game between Cyrus and Cray Blitz with Stockfish (and Komodo 8) leads to a curious phenomenon I have seen before. At moves 30, 33 and 40 they show an evaluation of 0.00, but after you actually make their recommended move for black, the evaluation jumps back to the correct one of a 2-3 Pawn advantage.
     For example, make 30.Nb5 on the board and the engines show 30...Rb7 with no further moves and the evaluation immediately dropped to 0.00. This happened with Stockfish, Komodo 8, Crafty 23.01, Fire 4, Fritz 5.32, Giraffe, Rybka 2.3.2a, Roce, SmarThink and SugaR PrO. Only Fritz 12 and Houdini 1.5a, which also recommend 30.Nb5, show white with a substantial advantage after 30...Rb7; they also, as is normal, show additional moves. I don't know why this happens, but I have run into it a few times when analyzing games on LSS where engine use is allowed. Thoughts? Can anybody duplicate this situation?